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SKIN CARE INGREDIENT GLOSSARY
ALL | A-B | C | D-E | F-J | K-O | P-T | U-Z

Glossary of Terms and Key Skin Care Ingredients

=Science

 

=Nature

Science1-Methylhydantoin-2-imide (Tego Cosmo). Blocks the enzyme that produces melanin to reduce discoloration.

Ascorbic Acid Polypeptide. A reaction product of ascorbic acid and hydrolyzed protein.

Alpha Hydroxy Acids.  Ingredients that aid exfoliation by weakening the links between cells in the outer layer of dead skin, allowing the normal shedding process to occur at a more optimum rate.  By helping new cells surface, they improve skin texture, unclog pores and facilitate absorption of moisturizers.  It may also help play a role in building skin-firming collagen and elastin, especially when incorporated into a two-step chemical peel.  AHAs include lactic (from dairy products), glycolic (from sugar), malic (from apples) and citric (from citrus fruits).  Dr. Gross has found that skincare products with several different kinds of acids (AHA and BHA) are the most effective and least irritating, because when many acids are combined, each can be used in a lower (i.e. milder) concentration.

ScienceAminobutyric Acid (GABA).  Reduces fine lines and wrinkles immediately.

Antioxidants.  Serve as the antidote to free radicals by neutralizing their detrimental effects on collagen in the skin. For example, visualize free radicals as tiny darts poking holes in collagen. The bad news: As we age, our bodies no longer produce sufficient antioxidants to fight free radicals. The good news: Just as there are different species of free radicals, modern science has identified different kinds of antioxidants to combat them.  Dr. Gross recommends using products containing as many different kinds of antioxidants as possible.

ScienceAllantoin.  A substance known for its healing, soothing and anti-irritating properties.  Softens skin and stimulates the formation of healthy tissue.  Helps eliminate chapping and cracking, leaving skin silky, smooth and healthy-looking.  Found in herbs such as comfrey, wheat and sugar beets.

NatureAloe Barbadensis Leaf Extract (Aloe). Moisturizes, soothes, anti-inflammatory, wound-healing.

NatureArbutin. Inhibits melanin production in the skin.

NatureArnica Extract. An ingredient that improves the appearance of dry or damaged skin by reducing flaking and restoring suppleness.

ScienceAvobenzone (Parsol 1789). A chemical sunscreen that offers broad range protection against UVA rays.

Ayurvedic Medicine.  Refers to a form of holistic, alternative medicine developed in India.  The term "ayurveda" derives from two Sanskrit words: ayu, meaning life, and veda, meaning science.  Ayurvedic skincare focuses on plant extracts and essential oils.

NatureBentonite.  A clay that dries down to absorb oil from the skin.

Beta Hydroxy Acid.  Also known as Salicylic Acid. Aids exfoliation by weakening the links between cells in the outer layer of dead skin, allowing the normal shedding process to occur at a more optimum rate.  By helping new cells surface, it improves skin texture, unclogs pores, enhances penetration (and therefore effectiveness) of ingredients such as Vitamin C.  It may also play a role in building skin-firming collagen and elastin, especially when incorporated into a two-step chemical peel.  Although synthetic, it is close in structure to an acid that occurs naturally in skin, making it generally nonirritating.  Dr. Gross has found that skincare products with several different kinds of acids (AHAs and BHAs) are the most effective and least irritating, because when many acids are combined, each can be used in a lower (i.e. milder) concentration.  Beta Hydroxy Acid is derived from willow bark and birch.  Medical grade BHA is actually synthesized in a laboratory.

NatureBioflavonoids.  Plant pigments whose potent antioxidant powers keep fruits and vegetables from turning brown. Act as powerful antioxidants in the body and considered effective free-radical scavengers.  Also essential for the stability and absorption of antioxidant, Vitamin C, one of the key collagen-building catalysts.  Found in apricots, cherries, cantaloupe, papaya, grape seed extract, citrus fruits, black tea, onions, parsley, legumes, red wine, red grapes and all blue and purple berries.

ScienceNatureBisabolol.  Found as a natural component of chamomile, Bisabolol is an effective anti-irritant and anti-inflammatory ingredient.  It is very soothing and calming for red, irritated skin.

Blackheads.  A plug of keratin and sebum within a hair follicle that is blackened at the surface.

Blueberry Fruit Extract. See Vaccinium Angustifolia.

Broad Spectrum Protection.  Protects from both ultraviolet light type A and B.  Also commonly noted as UVA and UVB protection.

NatureButyrospermum Parkii (Shea Butter). Skin conditioning agent.

ScienceCaffeine.  An active, natural ingredient found in coffee, tea, cacao and kola nuts that constricts blood vessels in the skin and reduces water leakage.  Alleviates puffiness and under-eye darkness.

ScienceNatureCaprylic/Capric Triglyceride.  Plant-derived emollients that help bind water in the skin to prevent water loss.

NatureCamellia Sinensis (Green Tea Extract & White Tea Extract). A natural antioxidant in the tannin family, rich in chemicals known as polyphenols, which have potent antioxidant properties.  A potent antioxidant shown to neutralize free radicals generated from inflammation, but may also have benefit against DNA mutations that are associated with cancers (of the skin).  May also reverse sun damage. 

NatureCentella Asiatica/Gotu Kola.  Derived from the Gotu Kola plant, Centella Asiatica promotes collagen production and is known for its potent wound-healing properties.  It is also a known anti-bacterial agent.

ScienceCeramide. A lipid found in the skin that is necessary for normal skin function.

NatureChamomilla Recutita Matricaria (Chamomile Oil/Extract).  An extract from the flowers and finely dissected leaves of Anthemis nobilis.  Reduces inflammation and soothes sensitive skin. 

ScienceNatureChelator. Chemical compounds that neutralize metals such as iron, copper, lead and zinc, ­which absorb into the skin after washing with tap water or are excreted from the skin during perspiration. The Hydra-Pure Chelating Complex™, a proprietary blend of detoxifying chelators removes these impurities, reducing environmental effects leading to aging skin, acne, redness and irritation.   

NatureChrysin.  A powerful antioxidant, a flavinoid, also derived from plant compounds. It is a powerful anti-inflammatory and reduces swelling and puffiness.

ScienceNatureCitric Acid.  A naturally-occurring Alpha Hydroxy Acid derived from the fermented sugars of citrus fruits.  Helps speed up cell turnover/cell renewal.

Cocoa Seed Butter. See Theorbroma Cacao.

Coenzyme Q-10.  See Ubiquinone. 

Collagen.  The protein in skin that gives it firmness, structure, keeps it taut and resilient.  With age, collagen is not only produced more slowly and degenerates more quickly, but also diminishes because of sun damage, pollution, free radical damage and genetics.  Depletion of collagen is the main cause of wrinkles.  Fortunately, ingredients that build collagen by either promoting its production or preventing its breakdown can be both consumed in foods and applied topically via skincare products.

ScienceNatureColloidal Sulfur. Reduces oil-gland activity and dissolves the skin’s surface layer of dry, dead cells. This ingredient is commonly used in acne soaps and lotions, and is a major component in many acne preparations. It can cause allergic reactions in some sensitive people.

Comfrey Extract. See Symphytum Officinale.

ScienceCopper PCA.  Powerful humectant that brings moisture from the atmosphere into skin.

Cucumber Extract. See Cucumis Sativus.   

NatureCucumis Sativus (Cucumber Extract). It is a natural anti-inflammatory. Works as a mild astringent, yet is gently cooling and soothing and can help reduce puffiness of the skin.

ScienceDiacetyl Boldine (Lumiskin™). Naturally derived from the bark of a Chilean tree, it is a potent antioxidant that brightens and evens skin tone.

ScienceDimethicone.  An oil-free, moisturizing ingredient that helps protect and condition skin and self-adjusts to absorb only where needed.

ScienceDimethyl Sulfone (MSM). Essential to the structure of collagen; an ingredient which supplies sulfur to the skin. Since sulfur has been found to be present in the amino acids that comprise collagen it is believed that incorporating sulfur into skincare products and into a healthy diet could have a huge impact on skin health and preventing - even reversing - the signs of premature aging. 

ScienceDipeptide-2. A synthetic peptide containing valine and tryptophan.   

Elastin.  One of the skin's two structural proteins, the other being collagen.  Gives skin its flexibility, enabling it to stretch, then snap back into place.

Emblica. See Phyllanthus Emblica.

Emollient. An ingredient that softens the skin.  Similar in structure to natural lipids found in the skin, helps prevent dryness, soothes irritated skin and makes rough skin smooth.

Enzymes. Enzymes are special proteins that exist in the cells of all living beings. Their purpose is to facilitate naturally occurring biochemical reactions.

NatureEpilobium Angustifolium Extract (Willowherb Extract). A safe, natural anti-inflammatory that works quickly to sooth irritated skin. 

Essential Fatty Acids. Sometimes referred to as Vitamin F, essential fatty acids are long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids derived from linolenic, linoleic  and oleic acids and are crucial to our body’s basic functioning. Since the body cannot make them they must be supplied by food or supplements, which is why they are called “essential” nutrients.  Not only do they regulate several of our bodily functions, including the inflammatory response to injury, they also form part of the structure of cell membranes and are essential for rebuilding cells and producing new ones.  Studies show that EFA's are essential to the normal health, function, and beauty of the skin.  They can be found in vegetable oils (grape seed, evening primrose, sesame and soybean) and in seeds, nuts, legumes and whole grain products.

NatureEssential Oils. Oils that usually have the characteristic fragrance or flower of the plant.

NatureEvening Primrose Oil. See Oenothera Biennis Oil.

Exfoliant.  An ingredient or device, such as a washcloth or loofah, that revs up cell turnover by sloughing off dead surface cells.  Improves skin texture, evens tone and increases radiance.  Exfoliating acids such as Alpha Hydroxy and Beta Hydroxy Acids may also play a role in building skin-firming collagen and elastin.  In peels, it is not only the exfoliating action of acids that increases collagen formation, but the pH fluctuation the skin experiences as it goes from acidic to neutral.  Dr. Gross has coined the term Phlux to refer to this powerful action, which appears to be an even bigger catalyst in cell renewal.

ScienceFarnesol.   Widely found throughout the plant world and in many essential oils. It inhibits bacterial growth and has antioxidant properties.

Fibroblasts.  Connective-tissue cells that secrete proteins, especially collagen, from which the extracellular matrix of connective tissue forms.

Free Radicals.  Chemicals that destroy collagen and lead to wrinkles, lines, etc.  New research shows that there are at least two different kinds of free radicals - those triggered by the body (metabolic) and those sparked by the sun and other environmental aggressors, such as pollution and smoke.  Both types function like little darts, destroying skin-supporting collagen and elastin, but respond to different antioxidants.  This is why skincare products that incorporate as many different kinds of antioxidants as possible are the most effective.

NatureFruit Extracts (Apple, Lemon, Orange).
Apple Fruit Extract – an Alpha Hydroxy Acid that exfoliates and tones.
Blueberry Fruit Extract - a powerful antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent
Lemon Fruit Extract – an astringent that reduces irritation and oiliness.
Orange Fruit Extract – increases circulation and reduces blemishes.
Pomegranate Fruit Extract - a powerful antioxidant

GABA.  See Aminobutyric Acid. 

Genistein.  See Soy Isoflavones.

ScienceGlycerin.  A highly effective humectant present in all natural lipids.  Attracts just the right amount of water to skin to maintain balance.  Helps keep skin's intercellular layer intact, forming a natural barrier that keeps moisture in and skin smooth.

ScienceGlycolic Acid.  A naturally-occurring Alpha Hydroxy Acid derived from sugar.  Helps speed up cell turnover/cell renewal. 

NatureGlycyrrhiza Glabra (Licorice Root Extract). Soothes and calms the skin.

NatureGrape Seed Extract.  See Vitis Vinifera.

NatureGreen Tea Extract.  See Camellia Sinensis Extract.  

NatureHamamelis Virginiana (Witch Hazel). An extract from the bark of the witch hazel tree with proven astringent, toning, and anti-inflammatory effects.  Also dissolves excess sebum without stripping skin.  Has all the benefits of alcohol without the potential side effects.

Humectant.  A substance used to attract moisture to the skin and retain it.

Hyaluronic Acid.  See Sodium Hyaluronate. 

ScienceHydra-Pure Chelating Complex™. A proprietary complex of chelators which remove heavy metals from the surface of the skin, which are impurities that lead to various skin conditions.

Hyperpigmentation. The darkening of an area of the skin caused by an increase in melanin. Hyperpigmentation may be caused by sun damage, acne inflammation, or other skin injuries.

Inhiphase.  See Pueraria Lobata

Jojoba Seed Extract. See Simmondsia Chinensis.       

NatureKaolin. A pure, white clay found naturally in the ground. The clay's mildly drying and disinfectant properties help to heal blemishes, while preventing new ones from forming. It is also great at absorbing moisture and oil on the skin.

Keratosis Pilaris. A very common genetic follicular condition that is manifested by the appearance of rough bumps on the skin and is often referred to as "chicken skin". It most often appears on the back and outer sides of the upper arms.  It occurs because excess keratin, a natural protein in the skin, accumulates within the hair follicles, forming hard plugs.

Kombuchka. See Saccharomyces/Xylinum/Black Tea Ferment.

Lactic Acid.  A naturally-occurring Alpha Hydroxy Acid derived from dairy products.  Helps speed up cell turnover/cell renewal. 

NatureLavandula Angustifolia. Known for healing benefits.

Lavender.  See Lavandula Angustifolia.

Licorice Root Extract. See Glycyrrhiza Glabra.   

NatureLinoleic Acid. An unsaturated fatty acid derived from plants, that is essential to skin health.

Lumiskin™. See Diacetylboldine 

ScienceNatureLycopenes.  A newly recognized group of antioxidants derived from red fruits and vegetables, including watermelon, red grapes, red peppers, beets, pink grapefruit and especially tomatoes.  Extremely effective at fending off environmental free radicals, helping to prevent the breakdown of collagen.  May specifically diminish damage from free radicals sparked by the sun.   

ScienceMalic Acid.  A naturally-occurring Alpha Hydroxy Acid derived from apples.  Helps speed up cell turnover/cell renewal.

ScienceMannitol.  A sugar based humectant.

Matricaria Oil and Extract. See Chamomilla Recutita.

Medical-Grade Ingredients.  The highest standard used in formulating skincare products, utilizing ingredients synthesized or isolated in the most pure form.

Melasma.  A tan or dark facial skin discoloration. Although it can affect anyone, melasma is particularly common in women, especially pregnant women and those who are taking oral contraceptives or hormone replacement therapy (HRT) medications.  The symptoms of melasma are dark, irregular patches commonly found on the upper cheek, nose, lips, upperlip and forehead.  Melasma is thought to be the stimulation of melanocytes or pigment-producing cells by the female sex hormones estrogen and progesterone to produce more melanin pigments when the skin is exposed to sun.

Microexfoliation™. A gentle, non–irritating method of removing cellular debris from the surface of the skin, resulting in a smoother, firmer more even complexion.

Milia. Benign, keratin-filled cysts that can appear just under the epidermis.

MSM. See Dimethyl Sulfone.

ScienceNatureNiacinamide. One of two principal forms of the B-complex Vitamin B3.  It is a potent antioxidant and is a proven skin-lightening agent. 

Noncomedogenic. Not tending to clog pores or cause blackheads.

ScienceOctinoxate.  Chemical sunblock: UVB rays.

ScienceOctisalate.  Chemical sunblock: UVB rays.

NatureOenothera Biennis (Evening Primrose Oil). A botanical property described as an anti-inflammatory, also improves skin hydration. Supplies gamma-linoleic acid, an essential fatty acid.

NatureOlea Europea (Olive Oil).  A natural super emollient; helps active ingredients to penetrate.

Olive Oil.  See Olea Europea.

Organification. The process of organification allows trace minerals beneficial to the skin to be absorbed in a healthy way.

Osmosis Diffusion. Regulates the movement of water into and out of tissues in living organisms through a semi-permeable membrane from a less concentrated solution to a more concentrated one, until both are equalized.

ScienceOxybenzone.  A potent sunscreen that absorbs UVA rays.

Palmitoyl Oligopeptide. The palmitic acid ester of a synthetic peptide consisting of two or more of the following amino acids: alanine, arginine, aspartic acid, glycine, histidine, lysine, proline, serine, or valine.

Palmitoyl Pentapeptide-4. A reaction product of palmitic acid and Pentapeptide-4.

Palmitoyl Tetrapeptide-7. Is the reaction product of palmitic acid and Tetrapeptide-7

SPanthenol.  A Vitamin B complex factor used widely in skin and hair products for its conditioning properties.

Pea Extract. See Pisum Sativum.

Pentapeptide-4. A synthetic peptide containing lysine, serine and threonine.

ScienceNaturePeptide. A  peptide is a polymer consisting of 2 to approximately 20 amino acids connected by peptide bonds, a special linkage in which the nitrogen atom of one amino acid binds to the carboxyl carbon atom of another.

NaturePisum Sativum (Pea Extract). Delivers time-released firming properties.

Phlux.  A term coined by Dr. Gross to refer to the fluctuation in pH that the skin experiences as it goes from acidic to neutral during peels.  Appears to be an even bigger catalyst in cell turnover and collagen formation than conventional exfoliation alone.  It is why it is so important to use both Step 1 and Step 2 of MD Skincare's Alpha Beta® Daily Face and Body Peels.

ScienceNaturePhospholipids.  Natural substances found in all living cells that help draw water from the air and seal moisture into the skin.

NaturePhyllanthus Emblica. An herb derived from the bark, leaves, flowers and roots of the Phyllanthus emblica tree.  Used in Ayurvedic medicine for many different medical treatments.  Studies show that it has dramatic antioxidant benefits which work synergistically with Vitamin C.

NaturePrunus Amygdalus Dulcis Oil (Sweet Almond Oil). A super emollient and natural oil.

NaturePueraria Lobata Root Extract.  Extracted from the Kudzu Root, it is rich in Isoflavones and Genestein, and has powerful anti-inflammatory properties.  It is very soothing and calming for the skin. 

NaturePunica Granatum Extract (Pomegranate). Powerful antioxidants.

ScienceNatureQuercetin Caprylate. Antioxidant that reduces inflammation and soothes skin.

NatureRanunculus Ficaria (Pilewort Extract). Reduces inflammation.

ScienceRetinol.  A Vitamin A derived ingredient that reduces skins own collagen-destroying enzymes which accelerate with aging.  Also promotes collagen.  Incorporating both Vitamin C and Retinol into a daily skincare regimen will help combat erosion of both collagen and elastin.  Using a cream or gel with Vitamin C and retinol at night will help to jump-start collagen production.

NatureRicinus Communis (Castor Seed Oil). A plant based skin-conditioning agent.

Rosacea.  An inflammatory acne condition that is often genetic and/or caused by environmental triggers.

ScienceNatureaccharomyces/Xylinum/Black Tea Ferment (Kombuchka). Enhances skin radiance and luster; decreases yellow and grey tones.

ScienceSalicylic Acid.  See Beta Hydroxy Acid.  Enhances penetration (and therefore effectiveness) of ingredients such as Vitamin C.

NatureSalix Alba (Willow Bark Extract). A precursor to both Beta Hydroxy Acids (Salicylic Acid) and aspiring (Acetylsalicylic Acid), it is a potent anti-inflammatory and natural antibacterial agent.

ScienceNatureSodium Ascorbyl Phosphate (SAP). A stabilized form of Vitamin C. It is an essential nutrient for collagen production and also serves as an antioxidant.

Shea Butter. See Butyrospermum Parkii.

Silybum Marianum Fruit Extract (Silymarin). Potent antioxidant derived from Milk Thistle.

Silymarin. See Silybum Marianum Fruit Extract.

NatureSimmondsia Chinensis (Jojoba Seed Extract). Moisturizes and softens the skin.      

ScienceSodium Bicarbonate.  A gentle, naturally-occurring alkaline substance that is a superior neutralizer for acids.

Sodium Hyaluronate (Hyaluronic Acid).  The natural occurring substance in skin that first attracts, then locks water in the dermis, giving skin its thickness and reducing the appearance of wrinkles and lines.  It can hold up to 1000 times its own weight in water.  The “non-oil” component to the skin’s natural moisturizing mechanism.  As we age, our skin's overall water content, which plumps skin and makes lines less visible, and its hyaluronic acid stores both decline.

ScienceSodium PCA. High-performance humectant recommended for dry, delicate and sensitive skin.

NatureSolanum Lycopersicum (Tomato Fruit Extract - Lycopenes). Helps to reduce wrinkles, fine lines and fend off free radicals; prevents collagen breakdown.

ScienceNatureSoy Isoflavones (Genistein). An active ingredient found in Soy Extract that stimulates collagen production and diminishes collagen breakdown.  In addition to free radicals, skin contains naturally occurring enzymes that erode collagen.  Genistein, isolated by Dr. Genistein in Switzerland, has been shown to block and diminish these collagen-destroying enzymes significantly.  Also thickens skin dramatically by working like estrogen, but without the negative side effects of HRT (hormone replacement therapy). Gentle for all skin types and non-irritating; works well with all other anti-aging ingredients.

ScienceNatureSqualane.  An ingredient that can be found in olive oil, wheat germ oil and rice bran oil. It is an emollient that prevents water evaporation from the skin and it is a constituent of skin.

Sulfur. See Colloidal Sulfur.

Sweet Almond Oil.  See Prunus Amygdalus Dulcis Oil.

Symphytum Officinale (Comfrey Extract). An ingredient that has traditionally been used to treat wounds. The roots and leaves of comfrey contain allantoin, a substance that promotes wound healing and tissue regeneration.

Tego Cosmo. See 1-Methylhydantoin-2-imide.

Tetrapeptide-7.  A synthetic peptide containing arginine, glutamine, glycine and proline.

ScienceTitanium Dioxide.  A physical sunscreen that protects against both UVA and UVB rays.

NatureTheobroma Cacao (Cocoa Seed Butter). Softens and lubricates the skin.

Tomato Fruit Extract. See Solanum Lycopersicum.

ScienceUbiquinone (Coenzyme Q-10). A compound that is made in our bodies and used by cells to produce the energy they need to grow and stay healthy.  An antioxidant with actions very similar to those of Vitamin E, it has been found to be an excellent defender against free radicals and, when used regularly over time, may help ease lines and wrinkles by building collagen. 

NatureVaccinium Angustifolia (Blueberry Fruit Extract). A powerful antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent.

ScienceNatureVitamin A.  (Retinyl Palmitate, Retinol and Retinoic Acid).  An antioxidant essential to the maintenance and repair of epithelial tissue.  Stimulates new skin cells and inhibits the body's natural enzymes that break down collagen. May prevent premature wrinkling.

ScienceNatureVitamin C.  (Ascorbyl Palmitate, Ascorbic Acid, Ascorbyl Glucoside).  An antioxidant vitamin necessary for tissue growth and repair, as well as collagen formation.  One of the best free radical scavengers, it seems to combat free radicals triggered by both the body and the environment.  Works synergistically with Vitamin E. 

ScienceNatureVitamin E.  (Tocopheryl Acetate, Tocopherol, A-Tocopherol). The first recognized fat-soluble antioxidant usable in skin.   One of the most potent antioxidants, particularly good at defending against and disabling free radicals made by the body.  Essential to tissue repair.  Works synergistically with Vitamin C.

NatureVitis Vinifera (Grape Seed Extract). A rich source of bioflavonoids, powerful free-radical scavengers and of oligomeric proanthocyanidins, a very potent antioxidant.

Water-Soluble Silicones. Oil-free, noncomedogenic ingredients that replenish moisture, prevent further moisture loss and self-adjust to skin’s needs, absorbing only where needed.

NatureWhite Tea Extract. See Camellia Sinensis. 

White Clay. A natural mineral that absorbs excess skin oil.

Willowherb Extract. See Epilobium Angustifolium.

Witch Hazel.  See Hamamelis Virginiana.   

ScienceZinc Oxide. Broad spectrum UVA/UVB protection, physical sunscreen.

ScienceZinc PCA. Links the amino acids necessary for collagen formation; prevents damage to collagen and elastin fibers.


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